The Order of Events When You Stop Making Mortgage Payments

Find out what happens if you stop making your mortgage payments.

If you fall behind on your mortgage payments, the lender or current loan owner (the bank) will start taking steps to collect from you and prevent further losses. You'll get phone calls and letters about bringing the loan current. Eventually, if you don't pay the overdue amounts, the bank will likely initiate a foreclosure.

But you don't have to panic. In most cases, the bank can't start a foreclosure immediately, and the process is structured—and sometimes lengthy. You'll have time to plan and evaluate your options as long as you act as soon as you know you're in trouble.

In this article, you'll learn how long you likely have before a foreclosure will start and you'll get a general overview about what will happen in the lead-up to foreclosure, in order of what you can expect.

Late Charges and Other Fees Start to Accrue

When taking out a loan to buy a home, a borrower typically signs two primary documents: a promissory note and a mortgage (or a deed of trust). The promissory note is the personal promise to pay back the money borrowed. On the other hand, the mortgage or deed of trust establishes the lender's lien on the property and is recorded in the county records.

Promissory Notes

The terms of most promissory notes require the borrower to pay by a specific day of the month and include a grace period for the payment. If you fail to make the payment before the expiration of the grace period, your bank will assess a late fee. The amount of the late fee is set out in the promissory note you signed when you took out your mortgage and is typically around 5% of the overdue payment of principal and interest.

Mortgages and Deeds of Trust

Also, if you default on the loan, the mortgage or deed of trust's terms likely allow your bank to pass on certain expenses to you. These expenses include attorneys' fees and inspection charges, among others.

You'll Get Foreclosure Avoidance Information

In most cases, shortly after you start missing payments, federal law requires the servicer (the company that manages your loan account on behalf of the bank) to contact you in person and in writing to let you know about foreclosure avoidance, called "loss mitigation," options.

The Servicer Must Try to Make Live Contact With You

Federal law requires the servicer to make live contact with you—or take reasonable steps to contact you—by phone or in person no later than the 36th day of the delinquency to talk about loss mitigation options. So, your servicer will probably try to call you shortly after you miss your second payment. The servicer must also contact you again within 36 days after each payment due date for as long as you're delinquent on the loan, even if the servicer previously talked to you.

However, if you filed for bankruptcy or told the servicer to stop communicating with you under the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA), and the servicer is subject to that law, the servicer doesn't have to try to call you.

Written Notice About Loss Mitigation Options

Also under federal law, the servicer has to mail you a notice with information about potentially available loss mitigation options no later than the 45th day of the delinquency. The servicer has to send the letter again no later than 45 days after each payment due date as long as you're delinquent, but not more than once during any 180-day period.

But if you've filed for bankruptcy or told the servicer to stop communicating with you under the FDCPA, the servicer might not have to send the letter or might send a modified letter.

Breach Letter and Loan Acceleration

The servicer will likely send you a breach letter once you're around 90 days delinquent on payments. The breach letter will likely give you 30 days to reinstate the loan and avoid a foreclosure. Be aware that state law might also provide a reinstatement right, even after foreclosure begins.

Most mortgages and deeds of trust require the lender to provide a breach letter before accelerating the loan (that is, call the entire mortgage debt due and payable immediately upon the borrower's default). The bank must accelerate the loan as a precursor to foreclosing.


Under federal mortgage servicing law, the servicer can't start the foreclosure process by making the first notice or filing until you're more than 120 days overdue on the loan. The foreclosure will be either judicial or nonjudicial, depending on state law and the circumstances.

A foreclosure will remain on your credit report for seven years and could prevent you from buying another home for several years.

Getting Help

One of the biggest mistakes you can make when you skip a mortgage payment or two is to put your head in the sand. Once you realize that your financial troubles have escalated to the point that you will keep missing payments, you should begin exploring your options immediately.

Contact your loan servicer to find out what foreclosure alternatives—like a loan modification, short sale, or deed in lieu of foreclosure—are available to you, and make an appointment to speak with a HUD-approved housing counselor for free help. Finally, you might want to consult an experienced foreclosure attorney for advice tailored to your situation.

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