A "deed in lieu of foreclosure" is a negotiated remedy between a defaulting borrower and a lender. The borrower transfers title to the property to the lender, and the lender cancels the foreclosure.
Because a foreclosure and deed in lieu affect your credit in pretty much the same way—they're both really bad—it might not be worth bothering to complete a deed in lieu unless you can get the lender to agree to:
If your lender agrees to accept a deed in lieu of foreclosure and waive or reduce the deficiency, make sure that the agreement includes a waiver to this effect.
If the lender refuses to include such a waiver, and nothing in your state's laws prohibit lenders from suing borrowers for the deficiency after a deed in lieu of foreclosure, you could later find yourself facing a lawsuit filed by your lender to recover the difference between the amount you owe and the property's fair market value.
Like a deed in lieu of foreclosure, a "short sale" is also a negotiated remedy between a defaulting homeowner and the lender. The borrower sells the house for an amount less than the outstanding mortgage debt, and the lender agrees to accept this lesser amount and cancel the foreclosure.
Lenders sometimes impose conditions on its acceptance of a short sale. The most common conditions are:
If you're pursuing a short sale, do your best to negotiate with your lender to remove these conditions from your short sale agreement and to include language releasing you from liability for any debt that remains after the short sale closes.
Though, again, be aware that if the lender forgives all or part of the deficiency and issues you a 1099-C, you might face a tax liability.
It's not unusual for a homeowner to have a second, or even a third, mortgage on the property. For a deed in lieu of foreclosure or short sale to work, all of the subordinate lienholders must agree to the terms of the deed in lieu of foreclosure or short sale agreement and release their liens on the property.
Getting all mortgage holders to agree might be close to impossible to achieve, particularly with a deed in lieu of foreclosure. To encourage the subordinate lienholders to agree to a deed in lieu of foreclosure or short sale, the holder of the first mortgage might offer a financial incentive in exchange.
You will face some negative consequences after completing a deed in lieu of foreclosure or short sale.
One negative consequence is a drop in your credit score. Keep in mind, however, that your credit score would also have dropped after a foreclosure.
While it's a commonly-held belief that short sales and deeds in lieu of foreclosure have less of a negative impact on credit scores than foreclosure, in reality, the effect is basically the same.
Another possible consequence of a deed in lieu of foreclosure or short sale is a deficiency judgment. As noted above, you should try to negotiate with your lender to include language in your deed in lieu of foreclosure or short sale agreement releasing you from liability for any deficiency that remains.
If your lender refuses to do so and is successful in suing you for a deficiency judgment, try to negotiate a settlement for less than the amount of the judgment or to pay off the judgment over time. Though, again, there could be tax consequences if the lender forgives part of the deficiency.
As a final resort, filing for bankruptcy could eliminate your deficiency debt.
As previously mentioned, if the lender decides to write off the the deficiency as a loss, you might owe income tax on the amount of the forgiven debt. But you might fall under an exception to this general rule.
For example, if you can prove that you were insolvent when the debt was forgiven, you would have no income tax liability. To get information about your potential tax liability, talk to a tax lawyer.
If you need additional help working out a way to avoid foreclosure, or you want to learn about how foreclosure works in your state or about potential defenses to foreclosure in your situation, consider talking to a foreclosure attorney.
To learn more about short sales and deeds in lieu of foreclosure, or to get help submitting an application to your servicer asking for one of these options, consider talking to a HUD-approved housing counselor.