The EB-3 visa is an employment-based immigrant visa, which leads to
U.S. permanent residence or a green card. It is also referred to as the
employment third preference visa category. It's available to three
categories of people: skilled workers, unskilled workers, and
The first requirement for applying for an EB-3 visa is that you must
have a job offer from a U.S. employer. The job must be full time.
Skilled workers must have at least two years of training or
experience. Unskilled workers can apply for an EB-3 visa if the position
offered to them requires less than two years training or experience.
Professionals must have a U.S. bachelor's or foreign equivalent degree.
See EB-3 Visa for Professional, Skilled, or Unskilled Workers for more detailed eligibility rules.
Steps in the Process
Before you attempt to analyze how long it will take to get a green
card in category EB-3, you must understand the many steps in the
process. These include:
- You find an employer interested in hiring you and willing to
you. This itself can be a challenge. As you'll see from the steps below,
the employer may have to wait several years for you to start work
(unless you're already there on a temporary work visa).
- Your employer checks on what salary or wages it should pay given the
local job market by submitting a prevailing wage request (PWR)
to the Department of Labor (DOL). This is done using Form 9141. The DOL
will respond by naming a
salary or wage amount called a prevailing wage determination (PWD).
- Your employer advertises for the job, recruits potential candidates,
conducts interviews, and ultimately determines that no U.S. workers are
qualified, willing, and
available to take the job you've been offered. (Note: This process must
be done in good faith -- it's possible that your employer will, at the
end of the process, realize that it should hire someone else instead of
- Your employer (with your help) completes a request for labor
and sends it to DOL. The DOL's approval means it's
confirming that no U.S. workers were available for the job and that you
employer can go ahead with the process of applying for your green card.
There's an exception to this requirement: A few types of jobs don't
require labor certification, because they're on the Schedule A list of
workers that are in short supply within the United States. Professional
nurses and physical therapists have been on the Schedule A list for
- Your employer submits a visa petition on your behalf (using Form I-140) to U.S.
Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS).
- After the visa petition is
approved, you wait until a visa is available, based on the date the
labor certification application was filed (your priority date). The
underlying issue here is that only a limited number of EB-3 visas are
issued each year -- a mere 28.6% of
the total 140,000 employment-based immigrant visas made available
annually, plus any
unused Employment First and Second Preference visas. Of these, only
10,000 are allotted to unskilled workers. You track your priority date's
progress by following the State Department's Visa Bulletin.
Skilled and professional workers must look under "3rd" on the
Employment-Based visa table. Unskilled workers must look at the "Other
Workers" row. Also check the columns to see if your home country is
separately named -- this happens when the per-country limit is reached.
- When your priority date becomes current, you submit your own application for
an immigrant visa (if coming from overseas) or a green card (if you're legally in the U.S.
and eligible to use the procedure known as adjustment of status).
- You attend an interview at a U.S. consulate or local USCIS office, where your
green card may be approved.
How Long These Steps Will Most Likely Take
Some of the steps above are your responsibility or those of your
employer or lawyer. You'll need to do your best to collect the needed
documents and otherwise move the process along, and ask your employer
and lawyer about their probable timeline. As for the rest, here's what
you can expect (though this changes depending on how backed up with
applications the various agencies get):
- The DOL
will typically provide the prevailing wage determination within a month or more.
- Employer advertising and recruitment in preparation for the labor
certification request will normally take at least two months and
possibly several months.
- After your employer files the request for labor
certification, DOL will ordinarily take four to six months to issue a decision.
- After your employer submits a visa petition (Form I-140) to USCIS,
the agency will take anywhere from four months to three years to issue
its decision. You can check processing times at your USCIS service
center by going to the "USCIS Processing Time Information"
page on its website. Although this wait sounds alarming, it may not
actually make a difference in your case -- your place in line on the
waiting list, which may itself be several years long, has already been
secured based on the date your employer submitted the labor
certification application for you (your priority date).
- After USCIS issues its
approval of the visa petition, check on what priority dates are becoming current by looking at the State Department's Visa Bulletin.
The date shown on the chart in your category reflects the priority
dates of people finally receiving visas. So, for instance, if you were
to see a date of "11NOV04," you would know that people whose labor
certifications were filed on or before November 11, 2004 were at last
receiving visas. Counting forward from that date to your own priority
date, you can get a rough idea of how much longer you might wait.
- After your priority date has become current, the subsequent timeline
depends on whether you'll be doing consular processing (from overseas)
or adjustment of status (within the U.S.). With consular processing,
you'll receive some forms to fill out, and then some weeks after
returning them, you'll be called for a visa interview at your local U.S.
consulate. With adjustment of status, you'll need to take the
initiative and submit your own application, several months after which
you'll be called in for your green card interview.
As you can see, the entire process can take several years to complete.
See a Lawyer
The processing time for an EB-3 visa can vary based on many factors,
not all of them within your control. However, making sure to do a
careful job at filling out the various applications and submitting the
required documents and fees can help the process along. Consult with an
experienced U.S. immigration attorney for more detailed information
about EB-3 visa processing times and the current backlog and for help
with navigating this complicated process.