There are several factors that could prevent you from from securing an F-1 U.S. student visa to pursue academic study at a school, college, or university in the United States. These range from your basic ability to qualify under the terms of the visa to more specialized issues, as discussed here.
In order to secure an F-1 academic student visa, applicants must be able to demonstrate the following to the U.S. consular officer who meets with them at their visa interview:
If you are unable to provide verbal or documentary evidence to support these factors, you risk having your student visa denied.
Also, broadly speaking, a student visa can be denied at a U.S. consulate any time the applicant is unable to prove that he or she can and will comply with the visa program's purpose and requirements once in the United States. The purpose of the student visa is to enter the United States as a full-time student at a SEVP-certified institution to complete an academic program, after which the foreign national is expected to depart for home.
Making sure you plan ahead and time your student visa application appropriately is critical to the success of the process. Your student visa can be denied if you apply for it after the program start date on your I-20 or DS-2019 form.
Consular officers can also deny your visa if the program start date has not passed but they have reason to believe that you will not enter the United States until after that date has passed.
You might be able to overcome such a denial if your institution can verify that you will still be permitted to enroll and register for courses at the time you are able to enter the United States.
Your student visa will likely be denied by the U.S. consulate if you are unable to provide evidence of sufficient finances to cover the expenses listed on your I-20 or DS-2019 form, including tuition and living expenses. Financial evidence must show liquid assets; that is, one that is immediately available for use, like cash as opposed to real estate or fine art.
Consular officers do not expect you to have sufficient liquid assets to cover your entire program duration, but you will need to have enough to cover the expenses for at least your first academic year.
One of the most common reasons applicants are denied student visas to the United States is that consular officers doubt their intent to return home upon completion of the academic program. Consular officers are advised to look at a variety of factors when making this determination. These can include the existence of bank accounts in the home country, future employment opportunities there, and written statements by family about future plans to return.
It can be difficult to provide this type of evidence if you are a young student who has not yet established strong ties with your home country outside of your relationships. Consular officers understand this, but denials still occur, and it is important for you to prepare enough documentation to at least create a realistic argument for why you intend to return home.
All nonimmigrant visa applicants are required to undergo a security check in various government databases to see if their name has been tagged for any reason.
If your name has been tagged on this system, you can be denied a student visa, depending on the reason. If you are coming to the United States to study a technologically or politically sensitive topic, you might have to pass an additional security clearance before receiving your visa. This might not result in a denial, but it will most likely delay the processing time of your application. Students often have to defer their admission for a semester or a year when this happens.
If you have been found to meet one of the grounds of inadmissibility to the United States, your student visa will be denied. Common charges of inadmissibility include criminal convictions, past use of fraud, and/or prior overstays in the United States that surpassed 180 days.
When your student visa expires, you will have to visit a U.S. consulate to apply for a new one if you are still enrolled in your academic program and you want to travel abroad and be able to return to the United States. (Extensions of your student status are possible from within the U.S., but will not permit return entry if you leave.) Your application for a new F-1 student visa can be denied at this point, even though your prior application was successful.
If your student visa is denied, the consular officer should inform you of the reasons both verbally and in writing. Carefully review this decision.
Depending on the reasons and your consulate, you might be able to reapply for your visa once you have collected documentation to overcome the denial. Your Designated School Official (DSO) might be able to assist you if the reason is directly related to your I-20 form and admission. If the denial is for any other reason, consider seeking assistance from an immigration attorney.