Qualifying for U.S. lawful permanent residence (a green card) is a challenge. Many people find that they don’t fit into any of the grounds of eligibility, or that even if they do, they face a wait of many years before a visa becomes available to them. This is especially true in some of the family- or employment-based green card categories, where annual limitations on the number of immigrant visas given out lead to waiting lists of many years or in rare cases, decades.
In such a situation, it may make sense to look into the possibility of getting a nonimmigrant (temporary) visa. But you’ll need to understand the pluses and minuses first.
Obtaining a nonimmigrant visa can help you get to know the United States, make sure you really want to live there, and develop connections that might lead to a green card – for example, with potential employers. If you happen to fall in love, you may even qualify for a green card based on marriage.
A condition of obtaining many types of nonimmigrant visas is that you intend to stay in the U.S. for a temporary period only, as opposed to using the visa as a pretext for getting into the U.S. and ultimately applying for a green card. When you apply for your nonimmigrant visa, you will need to show numerous documents proving your nonimmigrant intent. More specifically, you will need to demonstrate that you are maintaining a residence abroad that you have no intention of abandoning, and that you have significant family or employment related ties to your country of origin, such that you will naturally want to return home when your U.S. visit is over. Such documents might include a letter from your employer and a copy of your home deed or apartment lease.
People who have already applied for green cards but are still waiting for a visa to become available sometimes have particular trouble obtaining nonimmigrant visas. The U.S. consular officer who reviews their visa application tends to suspect that the applicant is merely looking for a way to hurry up the process by getting into the U.S. in order to apply for a green card there.
There are certain nonimmigrant visa categories that allow a person to apply for a green card without worrying about immigrant intent – in other words, that allow "dual intent." By law, immigrant intent is not a factor for consideration in H-1A, H-1B, and L visa cases. Dual intent is also usually allowed in E, O, and P visa applications, but talk to an immigration attorney for the details if you are interested in one of these visas and hoping to apply for a green card.
If you truly need or want a nonimmigrant visa so you can go to the U.S. right away, but are definitely planning to apply for a green card later, you should probably not begin the process of applying for a green card (for example, by having a relative or employer file a visa petition on your behalf) until you have less need to travel. When you can wait for the green card to come through without too much inconvenience, only then should you start applying for one.