The United States welcomes foreign nationals who want to visit for business or pleasure. Unlike in many other countries, in the United States there are no internal controls on most visitors, such as the need to register with local authorities. But to enjoy such privileges, foreign nationals must prove that they qualify for entry.
Particularly challenging is the requirement that visa applicants prove that they will return to their homeland when their permitted stay runs out. U.S. immigration law requires consular officers to view every visa applicant as an intending immigrant until the applicant proves otherwise.
Under U.S. immigration law, the applicant has the burden of proof that he or she is not an intending immigrant. Section 214(b) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (I.N.A.) or 8 U.S.C. § 1184(b) states:
Every alien shall be presumed to be an immigrant until he establishes to the satisfaction of the consular officer, at the time of application for admission, that he is entitled to a nonimmigrant status....
To qualify for a visitor or student visa, for example, an applicant must meet the requirements of I.N.A. §§ 101(a)(15)(B) or (F), respectively. (8 U.S.C. § 1101(a)(15)(B) or (F).) Failure to do so will result in a refusal of a visa under I.N.A. 214(b).
The most frequent basis for such a refusal concerns the requirement that the prospective visitor or student possess a residence abroad he or she has no intention of abandoning. Applicants can prove the existence of such residence by demonstrating that they have ties to their homeland that would compel them to leave the U.S. at the end of their temporary stay.
Consular officers make the decisions to grant or deny student or visitor visas within minutes of the consular interview, often without even reviewing whatever evidence an applicant has ready to present to the officer.
Consular officers apply the strong-ties test on a case-by-case basis. What constitutes strong ties can differ from country to country, city to city, and individual to individual.
Some examples of ties can be a job, house, family, and bank account. "Ties" are the various aspects of the visa applicant’s life that bind the applicant to his or her homeland. These might include assets, a job, children, a spouse, elderly parents, a business, or health-related concerns.
In most cases, a person who has a steady job, spouse, and small children who are not also coming to the United States, as well as real estate assets, bank accounts, or a business, will meet the strong-ties test.
To show these ties, the visa applicant should make supporting documents available at the interview. Acceptable documents might include copies of title to assets, bank records, business records, leases, a letter of employment, birth certificates for the applicant’s minor children, and pictures of the family members who will remain in the homeland.
A consular officer evaluating the visa application will look at the applicant's professional, social, cultural, and other factors. In cases of younger applicants who might not have had an opportunity to form many ties, consular officers might look at the applicant’s specific intentions, family situation, and connections in the home country and in the United States, the applicant's age, and his or her long-range plans and prospects within the country of residence.
Social media also has become fertile ground for consular officers to review before approving or denying a visa application. A seemingly fun post about “moving to the U.S.” very well could doom a visitor visa application.
If the visa applicant has relatives or friends in the United States, it sometimes can be helpful to have evidence of financial support for the planned visit. One option is to use a Form I-134 Affidavit of Support as well as a personal statement from the host to show resources available to provide room and board
Because of the volume of applications received, most consular officers are under considerable time pressure to conduct a quick and efficient interview. They must make a decision, for the most part, on the impressions they form during the first seconds of the interview.
Consequently, what the applicant says first and the initial impression created are critical to success. It’s best to keep answers to the officer's questions short, to the point, and truthful. For example, someone planning to visit the U.S. on a tourist visa should know by heart what places he or she will visit and should have a tour schedule.
Although denial of a visa under Section 214(B) of the I.N.A. is not permanent, it is very damaging. The success rate of getting a tourist or student visa after one denial is greatly diminished even if the applicant provides the required evidence to meet the strong ties test. Therefore, it’s best to thoroughly prepare for the consular interview and provide the necessary documents at the initial interview.
In short, no. The consular officer’s decision is final. The only option is to submit a new application with new or additional evidence or once circumstances have changed to show more or stronger ties to the home country.