The final step in obtaining your green card in the United States, through the adjustment of status process, is normally to attend an interview with an official of U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS).
Until the date of your interview, it’s quite possible that you will not have had any personal contact with any immigration official. The government views the interview as its chance to confirm the contents of your application after you’ve sworn to tell the truth (even though you represented that the answers on your application form were true and correct when you signed them).
The interview also allows the government to ask additional questions—for example, in a marriage-based green card case, to ask personal questions that will test whether your marriage is real or a sham.
If you want some tips on questions to expect, this page covers the most common.
Assuming you have prepared your paperwork carefully and have nothing to hide, your interview should go smoothly. Nevertheless, the tone and progress of the interview will depend in large part on the personality or mood of the USCIS official. Some interviews just go badly, with the USCIS officer behaving in an impatient, rude, or belligerent manner. Here’s what to do if that happens:
Try to remember that USCIS officers are human—and they have seen a lot of fraudulent applicants along with the worthy ones. Remember also that they hold much of the power over your case. Remain respectful and answer honestly if you don’t know or remember something. Never guess or lie, and try to avoid chattering on nervously.
They often don’t tell you this, but it may be shown on their desk. The best thing to do is politely ask the person’s name at the beginning of the interview (not when things have already started to go badly, when he or she may get defensive). Write the name down. This tidbit of information may become important later. For example, if you need to file a complaint, discuss the matter with a supervisor, or consult with an attorney, you’ll have an edge if you know who you dealt with. (An experienced attorney will know all the local USCIS officers by name and can better understand your description of what happened after learning who was involved.)
For example, you don’t have to put up with a USCIS officer who is irrationally angry, makes irrelevant accusations, acts in a discriminatory manner based on your race or gender, or persists with a line of questions or statements that is completely inappropriate.
By offering to supply any information that the officer asked for, your case will be postponed (“pended” in USCIS lingo). That will give the officer a chance to cool down, and give you some time to collect your thoughts or resources in order to answer the officer’s concerns.
When you get home, write down as many details as you can remember of the interview, while it’s fresh in your mind. Try to remember the officer’s exact words, especially regarding his or her idea as to what is lacking or problematic in your case.
If you’re able to postpone your case, or are awaiting a decision after a bad interview, consider speaking with an attorney about your experience. Even if you don’t consult a lawyer, write a letter asking that a supervisor consider the interviewer’s conduct when making the final review of your case. Supervisors review all immigration cases, but they will assume the officer acted appropriately unless you advise them otherwise.
And for more information on preparing green card applications and attending your interview, see U.S. Immigration Made Easy, by Ilona Bray (Nolo), from which this article is partially drawn.