Reckless driving, in some form, is illegal in every state. But states define reckless driving differently and reckless driving is sometimes a generic term covering many types of driving violations. Depending on the circumstances, a reckless driving violation could be an infraction, punishable by a nominal fine, or a more serious criminal offense that carries severe penalties such as possible jail time, license suspension, and fines in the hundreds or thousands of dollars. This article explains the different types of reckless driving violations and some of the possible penalties that could result from a conviction.
General reckless driving definitions. In the majority of states, reckless driving is defined something like the following: operating a vehicle with a willful or wanton disregard for the safety of other persons or property. This definition may seem obtuse or too broad to define exactly what constitutes a violation. And many drivers have attacked reckless driving statutes in court arguing these definitions are too vague to give notice of what's prohibited.
However, courts have generally rejected these kinds of arguments and found that reckless driving laws adequately define what amounts to a violation. Courts have commented that, in determining whether a motorist violated a reckless driving law, judges should consider factors like speed, driving patterns, weather, and traffic conditions.
Specific reckless driving statutes. The laws of many states also contain lists of specific actions (driving violations) that are considered "per se" reckless driving. For example, using a hill or incline in Illinois to make a vehicle become airborne is considered reckless driving, no matter how "safely" a driver performs such a maneuver. Examples of per se reckless driving violations, depending on the state, might also include:
Typically, states that have per se reckless driving violations also have the more general provisions in their laws that prohibit driving in a manner that creates a substantial risk of harming persons or property.
Depending on the circumstances and jurisdiction (the state where the violation occurs), reckless driving can be classified as a traffic infraction, misdemeanor, or felony. Generally, traffic infractions aren't considered criminal offenses, whereas misdemeanors and felonies are types of crimes.
Infractions. A few states classify reckless driving as a traffic infraction. Because traffic infractions aren't considered crimes, they generally don't carry the possibility of jail time. Typically, a reckless driving infraction can result in only a fine and traffic violation demerit points (in states that have traffic point systems). However, in states where reckless driving in generally an infraction, repeat violations can sometimes result in license suspension or misdemeanor charges.
Misdemeanors. In most states, reckless driving is a misdemeanor. Depending on the circumstances and jurisdiction, a misdemeanor reckless driving conviction might carry something like up to a year in jail and a maximum of $500 in fines. The Department of Motor Vehicles might also suspend the driver's license for a short period of time. Generally, repeat violations will result in more severe penalties.
Felonies. In some circumstances, reckless driving can be charged as a felony. Factors that might elevate a reckless driving violation to a felony include injuries, property damage, and having prior convictions. For example, a second reckless driving conviction in Rhode Island is a felony. And in Florida, reckless driving that results in great bodily injury is a class 4 felony.
In some states, it's possible for drivers who are charged with driving under the influence (DUI) charges to plea bargain for a reckless driving charge. (Generally, reckless driving is a less serious offense than a DUI.) When a DUI is pled down to a reckless driving charge, it's often called a "wet reckless."
Although a wet reckless conviction generally carries less severe penalties than a DUI, some states impose additional penalties for reckless driving charges that involved drugs or alcohol. So, in these states, the penalties for a wet reckless are less serious than those for drunk driving but more serious than those for a normal reckless driving conviction. For example, some states require drivers convicted of a wet reckless to install ignition interlock devices (IID) in their vehicles, which isn't typically a consequence of a reckless driving conviction that doesn't involve drugs or alcohol.