According to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 18.5% of all workplace deaths in the United States occur in the construction industry (that's more than in any other industry). OSHA categorizes the top four causes of death in the construction industry as “the fatal four” because together they account for 57% of all construction industry deaths. The fatal four categories are:
In most situations, immediately after the death of a loved one, a lawsuit is the furthest thing from the minds of close family members. No lawsuit can rectify the error or bring the loved one back. But after the weeks and months following the death, it may be worth looking into a legal remedy if the death was linked to negligence in the construction industry.
In the sections that follow, this article will discuss the complex body of law surrounding construction cases arising out of the death of a worker, specifically, the difference between a wrongful death and a survivor action, as well as the effect that workers’ compensation laws may have on the case.
There are basically two different potential lawsuits that arise when a construction worker dies as a result of a job related injury:
In the vast majority of cases, the deceased worker's family files both claims in the same case. The two differ mainly in the type of damages that are available.
Wrongful Death Actions. By filing a wrongful death claim, the family of the deceased worker basically makes the following argument:
So, in a wrongful death action, the family does not sue for harm caused to the deceased person. Rather, the family members sue for harm that was actually caused to them as a result of the loss of a loved one. These damages can include:
Survivor Actions. By filing a survivor claim, the family of the deceased worker basically makes the following argument:
The survivor claim is somewhat unfortunately named, since it is only available after someone has died. The idea is that when a person is harmed, that person has a right to a lawsuit, and that right should not die with the person. Therefore, the right to sue “survives” the person’s death. So, the estate of a deceased person can recover damages for the pain and suffering of a worker prior to the worker’s death.
For more detail on this area of law, see Survival Actions vs. Wrongful Death Claims.
Workers’ compensation laws prevent injured workers from suing their employers in standard courts. As an alternative, these rules, which are in place in every state, allow workers to be compensated for injuries out of an insurance fund that most employers are required to pay into. A workers' compensation claim is made in a no-fault environment -- meaning there's no need to establish that anyone was negligent -- but typically the amount of compensation available to an injured worker is less than would be available in a standard lawsuit.
Survivors of construction workers who have died on the job could potentially have legal rights against their loved one's employer. But they likely can't file a wrongful death lawsuit unless they can show that the employer's conduct (in failing to prevent the construction accident or otherwise protect the employee) was intentional, reckless, or somehow amounted to gross negligence. Remember that workers' compensation provides an exclusive remedy for workplace-related deaths, but most states have carved out exceptions when the employer's action or inaction rises above the level of ordinary carelessness or negligence.
The challenge is establishing intentional or reckless (or grossly negligent) conduct. But if the family can show that on numerous occasions the employer had been fined or warned by a government agency about unsafe working conditions, but blatantly failed to take any action, that type of misconduct could rise above ordinary negligence, and justify the filing of a wrongful death lawsuit in civil court.
In the event that a family faces a limited recovery as a result of workers’ compensation laws, it is worth considering suing a party other than the employee’s direct employer. Let’s assume that the worker, a roofer, died from falling off of the roof of a home being renovated. The liability of the worker’s direct employer, the roofing company, might be limited by workers’ compensation laws, but the general contractor, which hired the roofing company would not be protected by the workers’ compensation laws of most states. Therefore, the family might be able to obtain a recovery against the general contractor, outside of the confines of workers' comp.
In short, there are sometimes ways to avoid the effects of workers’ compensation laws. But those rules can be extremely complicated and they vary by state. For legal advice tailored to your situation, your best first step is to discuss your situation with a personal injury attorney.