This page is a starting point for anyone who's been injured in a car accident. You'll find answers to common questions about how to get compensation for your losses and links to more in-depth articles on topics like damages, settlements, and how car accident lawyers get paid.
Why should I settle my claim? Shouldn't I file a personal injury lawsuit?
How does the insurance decide to offer a settlement?
Should I trust a settlement calculator I find online?
What are "damages"? Which should be included in my settlement?
Should I get money for "pain and suffering" in my settlement?
Are my medical bills paid in an injury settlement?
Is there a minimum personal injury settlement amount?
Can I reject a settlement offer?
How is my lawyer paid?
Can I get a lawyer to accept a lower percentage of my settlement?
How do I collect my personal injury settlement?
Will I need to pay taxes on my settlement money?
If you've been injured by someone else's carelessness or intentional misconduct—for example, in a car accident, slip and fall, or assault—you have the legal right to pursue compensation for your injuries through the court system. As a practical matter though, the person or business that harmed you often has an insurance policy in place designed to cover your losses. And most insurance companies prefer to settle claims rather than defend against lawsuits in court.
Settlements tend to be faster, less risky, and less expensive than court battles. Settlements are a sure thing, while trials are unpredictable for both parties. If you go to trial and lose, you get nothing. A settlement is a compromise between you and the person liable for your damages.
See: Advantages of Settling Your Injury Lawsuit Out of Court
When you're injured in an accident that wasn't your fault, an insurance policy often comes into play. You might be able to file a claim under your own insurance coverage or you might file a third-party claim directly with the insurance company of the at-fault party.
Either way, the insurance company handling the claim is all about two things: minimizing costs and managing risk. The insurer will typically do everything it can to settle the claim before it gets to court and avoid putting the case in the hands of an unpredictable jury.
See: How the Insurance Adjuster Determines a Settlement Offer
You can get a ballpark estimate of your damages by plugging a few key numbers into a settlement calculator: You'll get a rough idea of the amount of compensation you can expect to receive if you go to trial and win.
In order to get the best estimate from any damages formula, you'll need to understand the universe of your damages.
Get all your claim-related documents together—medical bills, pay stubs, records of time missed at work, property damage estimates, and anything else that will give you a sense of your losses so far. These expenses are your "special damages" or out-of-pocket damages.
You are also entitled to compensation for pain and suffering, emotional distress, and other less tangible damages. Some insurance companies use a multiplier to calculate these "general damages."
An insurance adjuster using the multiplier method will add up your special damages and multiply the total by a number between 1.5 and 5 (called the "multiplier"). The multiplier will be higher or lower based on factors like the seriousness of your injuries, your prospects for a complete recovery, the clarity of who was at fault for the accident, and the impact of your injuries on your day-to-day life.
Remember that resolution of any injury claim usually turns on far too many variables—including the skill of the person negotiating the settlement—for you to reasonably rely on numbers that have been crunched on a website.
Try our calculator out: Personal Injury Damages Calculator
In personal injury lingo, the different kinds of compensation you can receive are divided into two main groups: general damages and special damages. General damages are also sometimes called "non-economic" damages, and special damages may be referred to as "economic" damages.
Basically, general damages are the kinds of harm and losses that stem from the underlying accident or injury, but are not easily quantified and can be more subjective. This includes compensation for any pain and suffering, loss of enjoyment of life, lost companionship, disfigurement, and similar harm caused by the accident and resulting medical treatment.
Special damages are losses that are easier to put a dollar figure amount on, including medical expenses, lost wages, lost income opportunity, and property damage.
See: How to Negotiate a Personal Injury Settlement
If you've been injured in an accident, and you were mostly not at fault for the accident you should receive some amount of money for your pain and the impact the injury has had on your daily life in most states. In accidents with minor, short-term injuries, it may be a small token amount. If your injuries are serious or long-lasting the settlement value of the pain and suffering portion of your claim increases sharply.
See: Two Ways to Calculate a Pain and Suffering Settlement
Yes, payment of your medical bills will be part of any injury-related settlement. The injured person will be reimbursed for medical bills already paid and compensated for future medical treatment that will be necessary as a result of the accident.
Be aware that your health insurance provider may have a lien on part of your settlement. If your insurance provider already paid some or all of the bills that you later get compensated for in a settlement, you'll have to pay your insurance provider back.
See: Who Will Pay For Your Medical Bills After an Accident?
No, there is no minimum or maximum amount when it comes to injury settlements. The amount of a settlement in a personal injury case depends on a number of factors, including:
See: How Much Should You Settle For?
Absolutely. If you've filed an injury claim with an insurance company, or brought a personal injury lawsuit against the person who caused your injuries, you're free to reject any settlement offer you receive.
Most injury cases settle before trial. In fact, most cases resolve before a personal injury lawsuit is even filed. But there are a number of valid reasons to reject a settlement offer and take the case to court. Maybe you and the other side are too far apart on key issues like who was at fault for the accident, or the extent of your injuries. Maybe you just want your day in court.
Having said that, it's wise to take a reasonable approach to settlement offers and formulate a strategic response. Talk to your attorney about the best course of action. Most often, you'll reject a settlement offer with a counteroffer, and negotiations continue. But the insurance company or at-fault party can end negotiations at any point and force you to go to court and win to get compensation.
The best way to start settlement negotiations is with a demand letter. A demand letter is your chance to tell your side of the story. How did the accident happen? Why is the other person or entity to blame for the accident? What evidence—police reports, witness statements, photographs—supports your version of events? What are your injuries and losses?
Be sure to end your letter with a specific settlement demand—a dollar amount you'd be willing to accept to settle your claim.
See: Sample Demand Letters for Personal Injury Claims
See: Responding to the First Personal Injury Settlement Offer
Most personal injury lawyers handle cases on a contingency fee basis, meaning you won't have to pay fees upfront. Your lawyer gets paid only if you do—either through a settlement or court award.
Most lawyers take an agreed-upon percentage of your compensation, typically 33%. Your fee agreements should spell out the exact percentage. Win or lose, you might have to pay court costs and other expenses like expert witness fees, filing fees, and court reporter fees.
See: Lawyers' Fees in Your Personal Injury Case
An attorney's fees are negotiable. As you interview attorneys to handle your injury case, you should bring up the fee arrangement. Most lawyers will immediately say something like "one-third is the industry standard," and that's true. But just like there is no average settlement. there is no average lawyer's fee. If you've got an excellent case, liability is clear, your damages are significant, and there's adequate insurance coverage, you should be able to negotiate a favorable fee agreement. On the other hand, if your case requires a lot of work and liability isn't clear-cut, a lawyer probably won't accept a lower fee.
See: Negotiating Reduced Personal Injury Lawyer Fees
When you settle an insurance claim, the insurance company will usually just write a check for the agreed-upon amount in exchange for your promise not to sue the insurer or the insured in connection with the accident that gave rise to your claim.
If you sued the person who harmed you (the "defendant') directly and there is no insurance coverage in play, collecting a settlement or judgment can be more complicated. Getting a judgment is one thing, but getting your money is another, and it will be a challenge if the defendant doesn't have much in the way of assets.
See: Collecting Your Injury Settlement Money or Judgement
The IRS has provided some guidance on this issue, but it comes down to what the settlement covers. If the settlement covers "physical injuries or physical sickness," then the award will not be taxable as income, as long as you didn't previously claim any "medical expense" deductions related to that same injury or illness.
Assuming you didn't claim such a deduction, you don't need to claim any part of the settlement as income for federal income tax purposes. But if you did claim a deduction involving the same injury or illness that gave rise to the settlement, then you'll most likely need to report the settlement as "Other Income" to the IRS.
There are portions of your settlement—often sizeable amounts—that are taxable:
See: Tax Liability on a Personal Injury Settlement
See the following sections for lots more information:
Settle Your Personal Injury Claim - The ins and outs of the settlement negotiation process.
Damages and Compensation - How much should you expect in a settlement?
Using a Lawyer - Find out how much a lawyer would cost, and when it's worth it.